University of Alberta, Canada
Production of short chain volatile fatty acids (SCFA) by bacterial fermentation of complex carbohydrates within the colon is essential for the intestinal function and health. Butyrate is a one of the key SCFA produced through fermentation and is not only considered the primary energy source for colonocytes, but influences the presence of populations bacteria within the intestinal microbiome and effects host intestinal immune function by mechanisms that are currently not well understood. This investigation examined the effects of rectally administered butyrate on the intestine of mice following challenge with Citrobacter rodentium- a bacterial inducer of intestinal inflammation. Mice treated with butyrate had improved weight gain, reduced histological scores of intestinal injury and increased expression of gene products that were important in resolving the bacterial infection (Th1, Th17, Treg), improving barrier function and enhancing mucosal repair (Muc2, RELMβ, TFF3). The butyrate treated mice also changed the abundance of populations of Proteobacteria, of Clostridiaceae and Lachnospiraceae bacteria. Collectively this study demonstrated that butyrate supplementation improved the intestinal health in mice challenged with Citrobacter rodentium.
Universidade de Santo Amaro, Brazil
Keynote: The effects of botulinum neurotoxin
Cerveira (João Carlos Cerveira Paixão) currently lives in Princeton, NJ, United States. He lectures Botox and Fillers worldwide in 4 different languages. Possesses dual citizenship (Brazilian and EU), In São Paulo Brazil, graduated in dentistry in 1997. Became Specialist in Oral Rehabilitation in 2000. In 2005 initiated an Start Up for an Italian company in Brazil, which subsequently received the invitation to move to Italy to direct and to coordinate Italian branches in 27 countries. This task entailed working with Regulatory Affairs aspects to the development of new products. In addition, responsibilities also involved the training of human resources, logistics, and sales management in many countries. After years exposed to this environment and the experiences accumulated DIFNE (Dental International Filler Neurotoxin Education), a nonprofit organization was created. The aim of DIFNE is to dissipate and train dentists world widely in the use of Botox and Filler.
The effects of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) on masseter muscles, when injected for cosmetic purposes (volumetric reduction) or treatment of excessive muscle activity (bruxism), have been investigated. Patients expect their dentist, not their physician, to offer a treatment plan that provides not only restorative dental health, but one that also includes a comprehensive approach to optimal appearance. The dentist is the treatment coordinator. It is not a question of whether the dentist should be aware of perioral esthetics; the dentist should be the key professional component. The contemporaneous question that mandates this dialectic discourse is: how active should the dentist be in the actual treatment of the perioral structures in the pursuit of the optimal smile and facial form? Any reasonable, sustainable conclusion requires objective analysis. What parameters should determine whether the dentist can adeptly perform tasks associated with esthetic extraoral facial procedures hereto for relegated to the physician or their delegate? In conclusion, the dentist is as well trained if not better trained than their medical counterparts to administer dental-related neurotoxins and injectable fillers. It should not be imposed nor should it be expected that every dentist should offer these services. However, certainly, they should not be denied the right based on arbitrary and capricious restrictions emanating from little more than turf protection. From our earliest training in oral diagnosis, we are exhorted to afford our patients a diagnosis and treatment plan that considers the indications, limitations, and alternatives for remedy